All creatures contain DNA, the information storage molecule. In fact, all organisms share at least 500 of the same genes. Changes in DNA lead to biological evolution. In this activity, you can isolate DNA and see what it looks like! Scientists use variations of this method to isolate DNA from all kinds of organisms.
Students learn how to extract DNA
They learn various properties of DNA:
DNA is a long molecule
DNA is negatively charged and dissolves in water
DNA comes out of solution (precipitates) in alcohol
Paper towels to be used as filters (Melita Coffee filters work also)
clear plastic cup
ice-cold 95% ethanol (room temperature 91% isopropanol at room temperature works well, too)
Glass rod, loop or straw
Put strawberry into freezer baggie
Mash for 2 minutes
Add 10 ml DNA extraction solution into baggie
Gently mix strawberry mash solution for 1 minute
Cool baggie in ice bath (to precipitate proteins)
Filter mashed solution through filter into clear plastic cup (that is in ice bath if using ethanol.)
Allow filtered DNA solution to cool a minute.
Carefully pour alcohol along side of cup. Use 2x the volume alcohol as DNA solution.
Let the two layers of liquid settle 3 minutes.
Extract DNA by rotating a glass rod in solution and reeling out DNA strands onto rod.
DNA is abundant in strawberries. For this reason, it is easy to extract DNA from strawberries. Strawberry cells each contains 8 sets of chromosomes. Eight sets of chromosomes is called “octaploid.”
Questions to Ponder
Q:What was the purpose of mashing up the strawberry? A: To break down the cell wall, cellular and nuclear membranes.
Q: Where is DNA found in strawberry cells? A: In the nucleus.
Q: What is the purpose of detergent in the extraction solution? A: Soap dissolves cell membranes so that DNA is liberated.
Q: What is the purpose of EDTA in the extraction solution? A: EDTA prevents DNA breakdown. It removes (“chelates”) minerals that are needed by the enzyme, DNAse, which breaks down DNA.
Q: Why is the solution filtered? A: This filters out larger particles, such as cell walls, etc.
Q: What happened when alcohol was added to the solution? A: DNA is negatively charged and remains soluble in water. Alcohol contains non-polar (non-charged) molecules. When alcohol is added to the DNA solution, DNA forms bundles of long threads and comes out of solution. This is called a precipitate.
Q: If DNA is so small, how come we can see it? A: Many threads of DNA bundle together so that we can see it.
Adapted from Carl Vermeulen at scienceprojects.com and from Berry Full of DNA by http://www.mrsortbiology.com/berryfullofdnalab.doc.
“DNA is an abbreviation for deoxyribo- nucleican- tidisestablish- mentarianism, a complex string of syllables.” ~ Dave Barry